- Easier -A volcano
is a mountain topped with vents, holes, and
craters. When the volcano erupts, lava, ash,
cinders, dust, and hot gas can pour out the top.
Magma (when it's deep in the ground) or lava (when
it reaches the earth's surface) is very hot, liquid
rock. When the lava cools down, it turns into hard
rock. Ash is a gray powder that results from
material being burned in the volcano. Ash can be
carried in the air for many miles.
- Harder - Volcanoes
occur along the earth's tectonic plates where
molten rock is forced upward from magma reservoirs
deep in the earth. The magma may be fifty to one
hundred miles below the ground. As the magma rises,
it gives off gases that cause an explosion in the
vents of the volcano. Lava can reach temperatures
of over 2000 degrees F. Molten rock, dust, and
gases push through the opening in the earth's crust
and form a mountain. A violent explosion can cause
the top of the volcano to blow off leaving a deep
- There are four types of volcanoes: active,
intermittent, dormant, and extinct. Volcanoes can
occur on land or in the water.
of a Volcano
- This is a good introductory illustrated site
World (University of North
- This site provides volcano information
including identifying currently erupting volcanoes,
a collection of volcano images and video clips,
plus volcano parks, monuments, and
- Webpages within Volcano World:
- 2) 'Kid' Door http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/vwdocs/kids/kids.html
- 3) Building Volcano Models http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/vwdocs/volc_models/models.html
- 4) Do You Want to Become a volcanologist?
- 5) Top 101 Ask a Volcanologist Questions
- 6) Volcanic Rocks http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/vwdocs/vwlessons/volcanic_rocks.html
- Related Website:
- 7) Volcanologists or Volcanology
Earth: Out of the Inferno
- This companion site to the PBS series has
pictures, movies, and explanations of what causes
volcanoes and what happens when they erupt.
by Wheeling Jesuit University/NASA Classroom of
- This is a great site to learn about types of
volcanoes, lava, and see some animations of
- Websites By Kids For Kids
Volcanoes Around the World (2000
ThinkQuest Junior Project)
- Do you want to know how volcanoes are formed,
discover the different types of volcanoes find out
what the major volcanoes of the world are
(including the Ring of Fire), look for use of
volcanic materials in our environment or test your
knowledge about volcanoes?
World of Volcanoes (1999 ThinkQuest
- This site contains information about how
volcanoes are formed, why they erupt, and Mt. St.
komo mai. Nou ka hale or How Our
Hawaiian Islands Were Formed (1999 ThinkQuest
- This site focuses on the creation and the
natural destruction of the Hawaiian Islands. It
includes a section on lava and lava
- Another ThinkQuest Project on Hawaiian
- 2) Eruptions (2000 ThinkQuest Junior
Education (2000 ThinkQuest Junior
- Learn about volcanoes, their geological
history, and how they work.
Volcanoes (2001 ThinkQuest Junior
- This site concentrates on the volcano basics
including volcano types, what occurs inside a
volcano, and what happens when they erupt.
- This site contains facts, photos, and links on
the causes and effects of volcanoes.
(1998 ThinkQuest Junior Project)
- The website provides information on eruptions,
how volcanoes erupt and other volcano facts.
(1999 ThinkQuest Junior Project)
- Here you can learn about different kinds of
volcanoes, how they erupt and the side effects of
these eruptions. You also study Mount St. Helens
and Mount Vesuvius.
Around the World
- Kapunahala 4th graders challenge your knowledge
of volcanoes around the world. See if you can
identify different volcanoes from various
- Eruption and Destruction (1999
ThinkQuest Junior Project)
- This site examines the formation of volcanoes
and their state before, during, and after
Online (1998 ThinkQuest
- Here you can find information about volcanoes
and plate tectonics. It also includes a database
with information on specific volcanoes.
- More Sites
We Predict Volcanic Eruptions? from
- Explore this geologic question online.
- Here you can find many types of materials on
active volcanoes worldwide, such as maps,
photographs and full texts of dissertations and a
few elusive documents.
Sheet: Volcanoes at the Federal
Emergency Management Agency
- If you live near a known volcano, active or
dormant, be ready to evacuate at a moment's notice
with these tips.
Eye of the Volcano from National
- Learn what forces inside the Earth come
together to create volcanoes like the one in
Volcanism Program at Smithsonian
Institute, Museum of Natural History
- This program seeks better understanding of all
volcanoes through documenting their
eruptions--small as well as large--during the past
- The website includes a definition of volcano
eruption, video and images, and volcano
- Learn what causes volcanoes, read case studies,
and find out if you can predict when eruptions
- Learn what a volcano is, get interesting
volcano facts, read about famous volcanoes, or
browse through a glossary of volcano terms.
of the United States from the U.S.
- This online version of a book by S. R. Brantley
includes information on active volcanoes across the
U.S. and plate tectonics.
- Other U.S. Geological Survey Sites:
- 2) Volcano Hazards Program http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/
- 3) Cascades Volcano Observatory http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/home.html
- 4) Monitoring Active Volcanoes http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/monitor/
- 5) Volcanoes http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/volc/
- 6) Volcanoes! http://www.usgs.gov/education/learnweb/volcano/index.html
- 7) Volcanoes of the United States http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/volcus/
- Connect to websites on active volcanoes,
indexed by geographic region.
of Mount St. Helens: Past, Present, and
- This online version of a book has tons of
information on the past and current status of this
- Related Sites:
- 2) Eruptions of Mount St. Helens: Past,
Present, and Future http://pubs.usgs.gov/publications/msh/
- 3) Mount St. Helens http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/vwdocs/msh/msh.html
- 4) Mount St. Helens: A General Slide Set
- 5) Mount St. Helens, Washington, Mount St.
Helens National Volcanic Monument
Volcano Observatory (U.S. Geological
- This site summarizes volcanic activity in the
Hawaiian Islands with both text and
- Related Website:
- 2) Eruptions of Hawaiian Volcanos: Past,
Present, and Future http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/hawaii/
- 3) Hawaii Volcanoes National Park http://www.nps.gov/havo/
- 4) Volcanic and Seismic Hazards on the Island
of Hawaii http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/hazards/
Eye of the Volcano from National
- Here you find out how planetary forces laid the
groundwork for the eruption on the tiny Caribbean
island of Montserrat, how the toxic fallout
affected the island's population, and what it has
been like living with the fallout of the
- Related Websites:
- 2) Soufriere Hills, Montserrat, West Indies
- 3) Soufriere Hills, Montserrat, West Indies
Millennium Observatory 1998
- Join scientists on trip to the bottom of the
sea to research Axial volcano, located underwater
on the Juan De Fuca plate 300 miles off the Oregon
Coast. Site includes an Education section with
ideas for the curriculum and teachers.
- This picture website shows recent and ongoing
activity of Stromboli, an Italian island volcano,
and other volcanoes.
- 'We've got lava' proclaims a Volcano Cam from
New Zealand. Here, you're watching the Ruapehu
volcano. Since nothing much usually happens
(Usually see a picture from the archives), you can
sign up to be notified by email as soon as she
starts to erupt.
- Another Volcano Cams:
- 2) Volcano Cam at Mt. St. Helens, WA
- 3) Volcanic Live Cams All Over the World from
- Websites for Teachers
at USGS Learning Web (Grades
- Here are 6 lessons plus a teacher's guide in
the PDF format. Click and download.
Theme Page (NASA's Classroom of the
Futureª, Grades 9-12)
- Students are faced with a real life problem and
their goal is to use problem solving skills and
Internet-based data (e.g., remotely sensed
satellite images) to propose and defend a solution.
A teacher's guide is available.
- This lesson leads students to look at one of
the exciting aspects of volcanoes - how explosive
they are - and see how this relates to where they
Lesson Plans at Volcano World
- Here are a few lessons and activities to get
you started, more are being added.
of Volcanoes (Grades 4-6)
- Here is a plan for making a model volcano.
Mt. St. Helens
- Created by
Johnson. Updated by