


 The
Topic:
 Statistics
& Probability

 Easier  A statistic
is a fact or piece of information that is expressed as
a number or percentage. The facts and figures that are
collected and examined for information on a given
subject are statistics. Probability is the likelihood
of something happening or being true.

 Harder  Statistics
is a set of methods used to collect and analyze data.
Those statistical methods help people identify, study,
and solve a variety of problems. Statistics help
people make good decisions about uncertain situations.
Probability is used to describe events that do not
occur with certainty.

 People in varied occupations use statistics.
Health professionals use statistical methods to
determine whether a specific drug or procedure is
useful in the treatment of medical problems. Weather
forecasters use statistics to more accurately predict
the weather. Engineers use statistics to benchmark
standards for product safety and quality. Scientists
employ statistical methods to design effective
experiments. Economists apply statistical techniques
in predicting future economic trends.

 Statisticians analyze data in two varying ways:
exploratory methods and confirmatory methods.
Exploratory methods are used to analyze what the data
seem to be saying. These exploratory methods often
involve computing averages or percentages and
displaying the data on some type of graph.
Confirmatory methods apply ideas from probability
theory in an attempt to answer specific
questions.

 Introduction
to Descriptive Statistics
 http://www.mste.uiuc.edu/hill/dstat/dstat.html
 Designed for use in a classroom setting, this
website uses both handson and 'virtual' activities to
develop and establish the basic concepts of
descriptive statistics.
 Other Introductory Statistics Sites:
 2) Animated Statistics Demonstrations (Allow time
to load) http://oak.cats.ohiou.edu/~wallacd1/
 3) Guide to Basic Laboratory Statistics
(Advanced/college level)
 http://nimitz.mcs.kent.edu/~blewis/stat/stat.html
 4) Meet Stanley Statistician from (Grades 57)
United States Department of
 Agriculture (USDA) http://www.usda.gov/nass/nasskids/stanbio2.htm
 5) Statistical Data Analysis: Prove It with
Statistics (Advanced/college level)
 http://ubmail.ubalt.edu/~harsham/statdata/opre330.htm
 6) Statistical Instruction Internet Palette (SIIP)
http://research.ed.asu.edu/siip/
 7) Statistics Tutorials by A. Dix http://www.meandeviation.com/tutorials/stats/

 Introductory
Statistics and Elementary Statistics from
Weiss
 http://www.awl.com/weiss/
 This website by the publisher of two wellknown
statistics textbooks has activities that follow
instruction chapter by chapter.
 Other Online Instruction Websites:
 2) Electronic Statistics Textbook from
StatSoft, Inc. http://www.statsoft.com/textbook/stathome.html
 3) HyperStat Online (Online book & tutorial)
by D.M. Lane http://davidmlane.com/hyperstat/index.html
 4) Introductory Statistics: Concepts, Models, and
Applications by D.W. Stockburger,
 Southwest Missouri State University
http://www.psychstat.smsu.edu/sbk00.htm
 5) New View of Statistics by W.G. Hopkins
http://www.sportsci.org/resource/stats/index.html
 6) Social Science Reasoning Using Statistics!
http://www.econ.ilstu.edu/Jack_Chizmar/ECO138/
 7) Statistics: The Study of Stability in Variation
from UCLA http://ebook.stat.ucla.edu/textbook/
 8) SticiGui: Statistics Tools for Internet and
Classroom Instruction with a Graphical User
 Interface by P.B. Stark http://www.stat.berkeley.edu/~stark/SticiGui/index.htm
 9) Surfstat Australia http://www.anu.edu.au/nceph/surfstat/surfstathome/surfstat.html

 Probability
by A. Bogomolny
 http://www.cuttheknot.com/probability.html
 This is the site of a brief introductory history
on probability. Scroll to the bottom of the page for
lots of activities.
 Related Websites on Probability:
 2) Percent and Probability from Math
League
 http://www.mathleague.com/help/percent/percent.htm#whatisanevent
 3) Playing to Win from Math in Daily Life,
Annenberg/CPB
 http://www.learner.org/exhibits/dailymath/playing.html
 4) Probability & Statistics Index
(Advanced/college level)
 http://links.math.rpi.edu/webhtml/PSindex.html
 5) Probability Net http://probabilitynet.com/

 Probability
and Statistics from the Math Forum
 http://mathforum.org/probstat/probstat.html
 This comprehensive math website connects to tons
of resources, activities, and ideas related to
probability and statistics.
 Related Websites:
 2) Probability and Statistics by J. Walker from
RetroPsychoKinesis Project
 http://www.fourmilab.ch/rpkp/experiments/statistics.html

 After visiting several of the
websites, complete one or more of the
following activities.

 Complete Some Online Statistics
Activities. You will find lots of
activities at CUWU
Statistics Program. Here you can
perform some simple data analyses,
complete simulations of drawing tickets
out of a box, play 'Monty Hall,' draw
poker and see probable winning hands, and
more. Teachers can set up a group so that
your students can compete among
themselves!

 Complete Some Probability
Activities. Follow the directions
found at RollO
Bingo (Grades 47), Shake,
Rattle, and Roll  A Bean Game (Grades
47) from CanTeach, Male
Bears Probability, or Its
Not Fair!: She Always Wins from the
National Council of Teachers of
Mathematics. Others may want to try
one or more of the four similar online
probability simulations at Monty
Hall, 3 Doors, Monty
Hall, Monty
Hall Puzzler from CarTalk, and
Now
Playing Let's Make A Deal. Another
online probability interaction can be
found at Area
Probability (Throw Darts!). Manipulate
the size of the circle and the rectangle
to explore the probability that a dart
thrown into the rectangle will land in the
circle. You can also click on the icons
below the graph to see a table of your
results. Another site that advanced
learners might try is The
Birthday Problem. Finally, you can
find several challenging problems at
Probability
in My Garden.

 Learn and Experiment. Visit
Games
of Chance and proceed through the 8
modules. Then conduct the related
experiments.

 Complete A Statistics / Probability
WebQuest. Adapt or follow the
procedures found at one or more of the
following webQuest sites:
 1) Are You Ready For Some
Football?
 http://www.loudoun.k12.va.us/schools/ashburnannex/holt/KenDodson/FootballStatistics.html
 2) Atlantic Coast Conference
Basketball: Comparing Statistics
 http://www.wfu.edu/~mccoy/NCTM00/amy.html
 3) Geometry Lesson On Probability
(Grades 912) by D. Hash
 http://www.gumbo.appstate.edu/coop01/webquests/dsj/probability/lessontemplate1.htm
 4) Introduction to Probability
(Advanced/college level) by J.
Matovina
 http://www.nevada.edu/~matovina/webquest_prob.htm
 5) It's a Thrill: Roller Coaster
Statistics by A. Swick
 http://edservices.aea7.k12.ia.us/edtech/teacherpages/amswick/index.html
 6) Let's Make A Deal Math: The
Study of Probability (Grade 6) by L.D.
Resch
 http://www.cyberbee.com/probability/mathprob.html
 7) March Madness (Grades 68)
 http://www.madison.k12.ky.us/district/projects/WebQuest/MarchMadness/mmwebquest.html
 8) Probability: Experimental vs.
Theoretical (Grades 912) by L.L.
King
 http://lhs.lexingtonma.org/Teachers/King/webquest%20Lori/webquest.htm
 9) Take Me Out to the Ball Game
(Grades 912) by S. Hallar
 http://warrensburg.k12.mo.us/webquest/baseball/index.htm
 10) Major Leagues http://students.itec.sfsu.edu/edt628/milenf/index.html#close
 11) Titanic: What Can Numbers Tell
Us About Her Fatal Voyage? (Grades
812) by T. Atkins
 & B. McManus http://asterix.ednet.lsu.edu/~edtech/webquest/titanic.html
 12) Why on Earth Am I Taking
Statistics? (Advanced / college level)
by K. Anglin
 http://www.blinncol.edu/matheng/anglin/Statisticquest.htm

 Create A Stats Quote Poster.
Visit the Statistical
Quote of the Day site. Then create a
poster that illustrates and promotes the
quote's concept or ideas. You may want to
visit for a week, and then pick the
best.

 Read Some Statistics Jokes. You
can find them at the Internet
Gallery of Statistics Jokes by G.
Ramseyer. Now see if you can write a
statistics joke! Share it.

 Websites By Kids For Kids
 Countnow
(1999 ThinkQuest Internet Challenge)
 http://library.thinkquest.org/28114/
 This site looks at statistics on many topics of
interest   the flood of numbers available on
subjects like life expectancy, global population, or
traffic are counted in a different way.

 Learning
Statistics (2001 ThinkQuest Internet
Challenge)
 http://library.thinkquest.org/C0122162/
 This website focuses on the statistical analysis
required in scientific research, including descriptive
statistics, parametric and nonparametric significance
tests, and correlation/regression.

 Probability
Central (1997 ThinkQuest Internet
Challenge)
 http://library.thinkquest.org/11506/
 This site contains a simple fivepart introduction
to basic probability theory with a review quiz. Topics
covered include probability properties, models, and
rules. A poker game illustrates the laws of
probability in a reallife situation, the probability
calculator gives the likelihood of two different
events both happening or either happening at the same
time, and there are also links to related sites.

 Probability
Plaza (2000 ThinkQuest Internet
Challenge)
 http://library.thinkquest.org/C006087/
 Learn about probability  from the most basic to
advanced topics. Nate, the genius, will help you as
you learn data analysis, combinatorics, realworld
probability applications, and more through
interesting, fun, challenging exercises.

 Statistics
(Section of Seeing Is Believing, 1997
ThinkQuest Internet Challenge)
 http://library.thinkquest.org/10030/statcon.htm
 This project houses a great online statistics
tutorial. Learn about statistical representations of
data (frequency distributions, graphs, percentiles);
statistical measures of data (central tendency,
variation); probability concepts; random variables;
discrete variables and more.

 More Websites for Stats and
Probability
 Charts
& Graphs from eduScapes
42eXplore
 http://www.eduscapes.com/42explore/graphs.htm
 Find lots of resources and activities on charts
and graphs at this companion project site.
 Related Website:
 2) Meet Pie Chart Pam from United States
Department of Agriculture (USDA)
 http://www.usda.gov/nass/nasskids/pambio.htm

 Data
and Story Library (DASL)
 http://lib.stat.cmu.edu/DASL/DataArchive.html
 'Dazzle' is an online library of data files and
stories that illustrate the use of basic statistics
methods.

 Internet
Glossary of Statistical Terms from the
Animated Software Company
 http://www.animatedsoftware.com/statglos/statglos.htm
 If there are statistical words you do not
understand, find it in this alphabetical listing and
click for the definition/explanation.

 Simple
Interactive Statistical Analysis
 http://home.clara.net/sisa/
 Here is a collection of procedures for performing
simple statistical calculations online, using HTML
forms at this site.
 Other Online Stats Calculation Sites:
 2) Descriptive Statistics http://www.physics.csbsju.edu/stats/descriptive2.html
 3) Descriptive Statistics from iFigure
http://www.ifigure.com/math/stat/descript.htm
 4) Interactive Statistical Calculation Pages
http://members.aol.com/johnp71/javastat.html

 Statistics
& Probability Letters (Advanced/college
level) from Elsevier Science
 http://www.elsevier.nl/inca/publications/store/5/0/5/5/7/3/
 This is the website for an international journal
covering all fields of statistics and probability, and
providing an outlet for rapid publication of short
communications in the field.
 Other Online Journals for Statistics &
Probability:
 2) Chance http://www.dartmouth.edu/~chance/
 3) Journal of Statistics Education http://www.amstat.org/publications/jse/
 4) Probability and Statistics Journals on the Web
(Linkssite) http://www.stat.ucla.edu/~tom/ProbStatJ.phtml

 Statistics
On the Web by C. Helberg
 http://www.execpc.com/~helberg/statistics.html
 This massive linkssite connects to tons of
statistics resources.
 Another Huge Linkssite:
 2) Links Related to Statistics Education by J.
Puranen http://noppa5.pc.helsinki.fi/links.html

 StatLib
 http://lib.stat.cmu.edu/index.php
 This website provides a system for
distributing statistical software, data sets, and
information online.

 Some Data Sources
 Baseball Stats from CNN/Sports Illustrated
http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/baseball/mlb/ml/stats/
 Bureau of Labor Statistics http://www.bls.gov/
 ChildTrends http://www.childtrends.org/
 Data and Statistics from Center for Disease
Control http://www.cdc.gov/scientific.htm
 Demography & Population Resources/Links at
Population Studies and Training Center,
Brown University http://www.pstc.brown.edu/resources.html
 Emerging 21st Century Family from The National
Opinion Research Center
 http://www.norc.uchicago.edu/online/emerge.htm
 Facts & Figures at International Tennis
Federation http://www.itftennis.com/html/fact/frameset.html
 Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family
Statistics http://childstats.gov/
 FedStats http://www.fedstats.gov/
 Hockey Statistics Archive at Internet Hockey
Database http://www.hockeydb.com/ihdb/stats/index.html
 KidsCount at The Annie E. Casey Foundation
http://www.aecf.org/publications/index.htm#kidscount
 Monitoring the Future: A Continuing Study of
American Youth http://monitoringthefuture.org/
 National Center for Education Statistics http://nces.ed.gov/
 National Center for Health Statistics http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/
 National Data Analysis System from Child
Welfare League of America
 http://ndas.cwla.org/default.asp
 National Football League Stats http://www.nfl.com/stats/
 National Statistics from the United Kingdom
http://www.statistics.gov.uk/
 Player Stats from Baseball Almanac
http://www.baseballalmanac.com/players/ballplayer.shtml
 Real Time Data Sites (Linkssite) from Stevens
Institute of Technology
 http://k12science.ati.stevenstech.edu/realtimedatasites.html
 Social Statistics Briefing Room from the
Whitehouse http://www.whitehouse.gov/fsbr/ssbr.html
 Social Science Information Gateway (SOIG)
 http://www.sosig.ac.uk/roads/subjectlisting/Worldcat/stats.html
 Sociometrics Data and Instrument Archives
http://www.socio.com/data.htm
 Statistical Briefing Book at Office of Juvenile
Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of
Justice http://ojjdp.ncjrs.org/ojstatbb/index.html
 Statistical Resources on the Web / Health from
Document Center, University of Michigan
 http://www.lib.umich.edu/govdocs/sthealth.html
 Statistics from National Basketball
Association http://www.nba.com/statistics/default_regular_season_leaders/LeagueLeadersPPGQuery.html
 Statistics from Service Industries Trends
http://www.sitrends.org/statistics/
 Stats from National Hockey League http://nhl.com/onthefly/stats/index.html
 Uniform Crime Reports from Federal Bureau of
Investigation http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/ucr.htm
 U.S. Census Bureau http://www.census.gov/

 Websites For Teachers
 Chance
by J.L, Snell, P. Doyle, J. Garfield, T. Moore, B.
Peterson, and N. Shah
 http://www.dartmouth.edu/~chance/
 This site contains materials to help teach a
"Chance" course, a quantitative literacy
course.

 ChiSquare
by A. Patel
 http://www.mste.uiuc.edu/patel/chisquare/intro.html
 This amusing lesson leads to understanding
statistical terms such as expectation, significance,
and chisquare. The lesson requires the Excel
software program.

 Data
Analysis and Probability (Grades 912)
 http://www.mste.uiuc.edu/stat/stat.html
 Here is a list of resources in Data Analysis and
Probability including lessons and useful data
sets.

 Images
for Instruction in Probability and Statistics
from R.L. Sleight.
 http://www.bellevue1.com/MTI/statgraphics/
 These images were selected as ones especially
useful in statistics and probability. You can use
these for instructional presentations and webpage
development.
 Related Website:
 2) Probability/Statistics Object Library http://www.math.uah.edu/psol/

 Running
to Conclusions (Grades 1012) by E.
Malczewski
 http://www.mste.uiuc.edu/malcz/ExpFit/INTRO.html
 This online lesson activity focuses on exponential
fit using statistical methods of analysis.

 Laws
of Probability: Mutually ExclusivevsMutually Inclusive
Draws or Playing the Odd’s (Grades 816)
by M.A. Siddiq
 http://www.iit.edu/~smile/phma1900.htm
 This lesson is designed to show students how to
cut down the odds or reduce the probabilities of
losing by using fractions and decimals.
 Other Probability Lessons:
 2) Phenomenological Probability (Grades 68) by R.
Foote http://www.iit.edu/~smile/ma9507.html
 3) Probability (Grades 68) by A. Timbers
http://www.iit.edu/~smile/ma9711.html
 4) Probability (Grades 58) by S. Reed http://www.iit.edu/~smile/ma9613.html
 5) Probability by E. Turner http://www.iit.edu/~smile/ma8919.html
 6) Probability by L. Willis Moss http://www.iit.edu/~smile/ma8713.html
 7) Probability of Childhood Games (Grades 68) by
R. Foote http://www.iit.edu/~smile/ma96m3.html

 Linear
Regression: Statistical Analysis (Grades
1012) by A. McCall and I. Mohamed
 http://www.mste.uiuc.edu/regression/titlepage.html
 This lesson asks learners to analyze paired data
by first finding means, variances, standard
deviations,and covariance. Then they use these
statistical measures to find the best fitting line for
the set of data and the correlation coefficient of the
two variables. This lesson plan includes two data
sets: cigarette and species data.

 Mean,
Median, Mode, Etc. (Grades 412) by C.
Goldwater
 http://www.iit.edu/~smile/ma9406.html
 The main objective of this miniteach is to have
students generate their own data and then analyze
their information. Some of the ideas that could taught
are mean, mode, and median, histogram, bar and circle
graph, and probability.
 Related Lesson Plans:
 2) Averaging by S. Thomas (Grade 6) http://www.iit.edu/~smile/ma9017.html
 3) Paper Toss Shootout (Grade 8) by E.R. Justice
http://www.iit.edu/~smile/ma9308.html
 4) Statistics of Mars by W.L. Lilly http://www.iit.edu/~smile/ma9311.html

 Probability
from Math Goodies
 http://www.mathgoodies.com/lessons/toc_vol6.shtm
 Here are a series of lessons and activities for
the study of probability.

statistics

charts
& graphs

raw data

chance

sequence

statistician

random event

improve the odds

histogram

uncertainty

lessen the odds

frequency

average

mean

medium

mode

probability theory

distribution

range

score

middle point

number

lottery

calculator

Bernoulli trial

sampling

certainty

polls
& surveys

binomial distribution

population

actuary

variance

standard deviation

data analysis

prediction

central tendency

gambling

significance

regression

estimate

non parametric

parametric

descriptive statistics

value

normal distribution

correlation

measure

probability




 Created by
Annette
Lamb and
Larry
Johnson,
3/02.
